Chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions


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Educating SWSEN requires collaboration among many people — several professionals and parents in particular. Indeed, there are few areas of education that call upon so much collaboration and teamwork. Indeed, there are many threads to pass through the eye of the needle. To put it more technically, collaboration can be defined as a process that enables groups of people with diverse expertise to combine their resources to generate solutions to problems over a period of time Idol et al.

In this chapter, eight topics will be addressed: The chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions of parents will be discussed in the next chapter. Collaborative approaches to educating SWSEN are increasingly chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions embedded in education systems around chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions world.

This is well illustrated in the following outline of the sources of support for regular class teachers in their work with SWSEN in 23 European countries European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education, Several interesting patterns of support emerge: Nearly two-thirds 14 utilised two or more sources of educational support.

Support was mainly provided by specialist teachers from special schools or from visiting services. They supported both the class teacher and the pupil. Classroom and specialist teachers worked as a team, sharing the planning and organisation of the educational work.

Professionals from visiting services offered temporary direct support to included pupils presenting specific disabilities. Support was mainly provided by specialist teachers from special schools and from Centres for Pupil Guidance. They provided information, advice and support to the class teacher.

It was possible to find remedial teachers working as school staff members. They mainly supported pupils presenting short-term difficulties, but more and more providing direct support to class teachers and the school, trying to coordinate provision of support, working methods and educational programmes.

Support was provided by specialist teachers fully or partially attached to the school and by specialists, such as speech therapists, who had specific time allocated to each school. Outside the school, central services, such as inspectors, SENCOs, education and psychology specialists, or health and social services, also provided the necessary support. Support was mainly provided by specialist teachers or other professionals, such as psychologists. They provided advice and support to class teachers, parents and direct support to the included pupil.

Support was mainly provided by a specialist teacher working as a school staff member. They co-operated inside the class with the class teacher on a part-time basis.

Local pedagogical psychological services were in charge of determining, proposing and following the type of support to be provided to the pupil in close co-operation with the mainstream school.

All schools had a member of staff who was the designated special educational needs co-ordinator with a wide range of responsibilities, articulated in the Special Educational Needs Code of Practices, including: Support was also provided by external agencies — specialist support services chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions the education department and the health authoritycolleagues in other schools, and other LEA personnel. Peripatetic staff chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions increasingly with teachers, in order to develop teaching approaches and strategies within the school, rather than directly with pupils.

A pupil welfare team was set up involving the pupil, their parents, all teachers and any other experts involved in order to prepare an individual educational programme to be implemented in the mainstream school. Support was mainly provided by specialist professionals from various services. They supported included pupils on a short- or long-term basis. They also helped the class teacher and the school staff. Specialist teachers from special support networks also provided support to pupils presenting temporary or permanent learning difficulties.

Support was mainly provided by a specialist teacher from a special school or from a social service. Support was diverse and included preventive measures, joint education actions in mainstream schools, education co-operation between special and mainstream schools etc. There could also be a support teacher working as a school staff member. They were mainly teachers specialising in language or behaviour problems. Support was mainly provided by a specialist teacher from a special school.

Their work consisted of directly helping the pupil, assisting the teacher with the variety of teaching materials and in differentiating the curriculum — informing other pupils and ensuring good co-operation between the school and the family.

Support was mainly provided by chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions remedial teacher working as a school staff member. Other types of support were also provided by specialist teachers, psychologists or other professionals from the local municipalities. They provided general advice on the curriculum and on the teaching of the main subjects; guidance for pupils and psychological counselling. Their aim was to support teachers and head teachers on daily schoolwork and school improvement.

Support could be provided by a specialist or resource teacher working as a school staff member. They were dealing with pupils with assessed learning disabilities.

Support could also be provided by a remedial teacher working chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions a school chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions member. Their main aim was to work with pupils with difficulties in reading and mathematics. All primary and post-primary schools had such a teacher.

Another type of support was a visiting teacher from the Visiting Teacher Service Department of Education. They worked with individual pupils, both inside and outside the classroom, and advised teachers on teaching approaches, methodology, programmes and resources. They also provided support for parents. The Psychological Service of the Department of Education chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions Science provided assessment and advisory service for mainstream schools with a focus on pupils with emotional and behaviour problems and with learning difficulties.

They acted as class teachers, providing support in the mainstream school after obtaining parental authorisation. Support teachers shared responsibility with the class teacher concerning the work to be done with all pupils. Implementation of an individual education plan was one of their main tasks. They also supported pupils inside the classroom; pupils with disabilities were not to be pulled out of their classes unless absolutely necessary.

They mainly provided support to pupils but also to teachers and parents. Support was mainly provided by specialist teachers, school psychologists, speech therapists, social pedagogues from special schools or from pedagogical psychological services.

Specialist teachers provided class teachers with information and practical support: Support could also be provided by a remedial teacher, speech therapists, school psychologists working as school staff members. These specialists were mainly available in mainstream schools in big cities or towns; there was still a lack of specialists in rural areas.

Pedagogical psychological services at local or national levels provided assessment of pupils and guidance for education of included pupils. They were professionals in education and rehabilitation and shared responsibilities with class teachers with regard to direct support to the pupil.

Class teachers were always in charge of the organisation of the class. Support was mainly provided by a support teacher from a chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions school. They worked with the class teachers to develop educational programmes, to prepare and provide additional materials, to work with pupils individually and to chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions parents.

Support may also be provided through mainstream schools with experience in inclusion. Support focused on information to teachers, assessment and providing teaching materials. Support teachers may also be one of the mainstream schoolteachers providing direct help and support to the pupil. They co-operated with the class teacher part-time or full time.

Support could also be provided by an assistant in the classroom. There was close cooperation between the three of them. The local educational psychological services were the ones to advise school and parents on the content and organisation of the education required for the pupil.

They were the people mainly responsible for advising teachers on the daily work. Teachers working with disabled pupils received support from the National Centre of Psychological and Pedagogical Support or from regional Teaching Methodology Centres. These centres provided training courses for teachers. Mainstream schools were to provide psychological and pedagogical support to pupils, parents and teachers, organising, for example, remedial classes.

Support was mainly provided by specialist teachers, or other professionals either from local support teams or internal school staff members. National policy gave priority to the second situation. The aim was to create co-ordinated teams which would provide guidance to class teachers. They co-operated with the head teacher and the school to organise the necessary educational support; they co-operated with class teachers in order to reorganise the curriculum in a flexible way; to facilitate differentiation of educational methods and strategies; to support teachers and pupils and contribute to educational innovation.

Support was mainly provided by a specialist support teacher working as a school staff member. They worked in primary and secondary schools and played an important role with the pupil and the teacher, planning together the curriculum differentiation and its implementation.

They also supported families and worked in cooperation with other professionals. Another type of support was a remedial teacher for learning support, present in all primary schools. Support could also be provided by local psychological pedagogical support teams.

Municipalities were responsible for providing and financing support to schools. If needed, support to build up knowledge in the municipalities could be provided at a national level through the Swedish Institute for Special Needs Education. Support was mainly provided by support teachers, specialist teachers or specialist professionals from special schools or mainstream schools milder forms of SEN.

They provided support to included pupils and their teachers. As indicated by Mitchellto release the potential of collaboration, participants have to learn the skills of working as a team member for at least part of their work.

For those who have been used to working alone as a sole professional, it is a big step to develop new ways of working in which one is expected to share responsibility and expertise with other professionals in other disciplines. Sometimes known as cooperative teachingthis occurs in inclusive education settings when a general education teacher and a special education teacher combine their expertise to meet the needs of all learners in the class.

Both assume the roles of equal partners. It does not normally mean that the special education teacher takes exclusive responsibility for SWSEN and the general teacher the rest of the class.

From the descriptions of the European countries above, Italy most closely fits this pattern chapter 14 options puts and calls solutions collaboration.

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