Freight trading weekly options
As we are well aware, Shipping is a very risky and volatile industry. In freight trading weekly options past, both the dry bulk and the tanker markets have highly dropped or increased within a few days only and any projections are very difficult short term or even impossible long term.
In order to manage their market risks, the market players may use various instruments. However, this measure is not flexible at all since freight trading weekly options vessel is tied up for freight trading weekly options long period and getting out of a period contract can be costly.
Fleet diversification is another traditional instrument which is used by shipowners. By diversifying the fleet, a shipowner participates in several markets, where the market risks are shared. In order to overcome the disadvantages of the traditional strategies for managing the market risks, recently a more advanced tool is developed: In shipping, this means that the Shipowner and the charterer will not have an actual fixture between them — they will not have the obligation to deliver an actual vessel or load a specific cargo — but they just take a market position in a future period.
Exchange traded derivatives are standardized contracts which are traded in a central marketplace and guaranteed through a clearing house. OTC traded contracts are negotiated directly between the buyer and the freight trading weekly options or their brokers and the counterparties may be exposed to credit risk since not all the trades are cleared however recently freight trading weekly options of the OTC bookings is also developed.
There are two types of derivatives used in Shipping:. We also meet swaps, however in other aspects of the shipping industry finance, accounting in order to manage the risk from the interest rate fluctuations interest rate swaps. They are also used for freight projections. By looking into the derivatives transactions, one can take a picture of the future movements of the physical market.
Studies have shown that FFAs can be used to predict the direction of the spot market for up to about 2 months forward. Finally, derivatives are also used for speculation purposes since the transaction costs are much lower than in physical markets.
Speculators —who are not necessarily shipping professionals — help the derivatives market since they provide market liquidity. All trades were freight trading weekly options and guaranteed by the London clearing house while the contracts, the dates and times of trading and other financial and freight trading weekly options requirements were all laid down in detail.
As soon as the trading account had been opened and all requirements were in place, the client could buy or sell future contracts. Forward Freight Agreements, as we know them today, were initially appeared in shipping in developed by H. Ltd but their use was increased after the and they are very popular nowadays.
However, after a few years of their use, organized exchanges and trading platforms were also appeared, therefore we now see both exchange-traded and OTC-traded FFAs. For buying or selling FFAs, there are broking companies who specialize in this service and have registered staff.
But how FFAs work? A Buyer and a Seller agree to trade an FFA contract and through their broker, they will agree on the route, period and negotiate a price. Trades are not published and all deals are done on trust. When the contract expires settlement dateif the agreed price is higher than the settlement price, the seller will compensate the freight trading weekly options for the difference. On the other hand, if the fixed price is lower than the settlement price, the buyer will compensate the seller for the difference.
On February a trader buys three grain cargoes from NOPAC to Japan, of which the transportation is going to take place when the grain season starts: One cargo in Freight trading weekly options, one in September and one in October. The trader fears that the shipping market will go up in August and freight trading weekly options to secure his freight against such a potential increase. On the other hand, a panamax shipowner who has fixed his vessel in time chartering opening mid July in Far East is afraid that the market may keep on softening and for this reason, he is looking to sell a FFA.
Since the FFAs were initially traded Over-the-Counter, there was a counterparty risk which was borne by each party.
This was the main problem when trading FFAs during these early years, since the losses from counter-party defaults were high. For this reason, a clearing system was developed by which the FFA contracts either exchange traded or OTC traded are guaranteed. With this clearing system, upon fixing an FFA contract, each counterparty deposits on his account with a clearing member an initial margin deposit.
FFA trading volume was increasing from to when they reached the 2 million lots 1 lot is equal to 1, mt of cargo or 1 day of charter hire for dry bulkers.
However, after the financial crisis ofthere was a high drop. Since it has freight trading weekly options steady at about 1. Inthe dry FFA volume was estimated at 1. This freight trading weekly options since the market risk and volatility is much higher in the capesize and panamaxes while minimum to handies. In the wet FFA volume, almost Options are the most modern derivative products which are used more and freight trading weekly options in shipping recently.
This happens since, as we will see below, they give even more flexibilities than the common FFAs. In contrary to the forward and future contracts which impose an obligation on the counterparties to trade, the option allows the buyer to choose whether or not to exercise same and then trade.
However, the seller of the option has no choice if the buyer chooses to exercise same. Options are also traded both in exchanges or OTC. There are freight trading weekly options types of options. The call options and put options. Call options give someone the right to buy an asset at a specified price while the put options give someone the right to sell an asset. For buying an option, one pays the premium while no margin is required to be placed by the buyer since he has the option to exercise same and therefore there is no risk for its counterparty.
On the other hand, a margin is required to be placed by the seller as a security. There are 4 main strategies which are commonly used in Options trading:.
The seller has the obligation to sell if the option is exercised by the buyer. The freight trading weekly options has the obligation to buy if the option is exercised by the buyer. Again, in this case, the sale or purchase does not refer to a physical asset but a market position.
We have December and a shipowner of a panamax bulker is afraid that the market freight trading weekly options experience a decline in February due to the Chinese holidays. Therefore, we see that in options trading the parties lock their freight trading weekly options earnings their downside while they keep the upside. Of course, the buyer of an option has to pay a premium which is not freight trading weekly options case in FFAs however even in FFAs the parties should place a deposit.
OpenSea team understands the importance for Shipowners and Charterers to freight trading weekly options their market risks. For this reason, we have freight trading weekly options a transparent marketplace where both parties can see the available vessels and cargoes and they can take an idea of the market trends.
Notwithstanding this, after you fix your vessel or cargo in our platform, you may visit an online exchange or a specialized FFA broker and fix a derivative contract in order to hedge your future market risks, in case you are afraid of same. In any case, we strongly encourage all our users to get a clear picture of how FFAs and other derivative products work, in order to avoid getting exposed to further risks instead of managing their current ones.
Just place your open inquiries and find suitable positions. Get started for free. Like what you're reading? Get the latest updates first. And how you may use them to manage risks As we are well aware, Shipping is a very risky and volatile industry. What is a derivative? There are two types of derivatives used in Shipping: Forward Freight Agreements Forward Freight Agreements, as we know them today, were initially appeared in shipping in developed by H.
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